The hands and legs quiver and shake when seated and while sleeping. When movement is initiated, the shaking often stops. This is the most typical symptom of Parkinson's disease.
Parkinson's DiseaseWhat are the symptoms of Parkinson's disease?
Below are the four cardinal motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. Each of these four symptoms may differ in severity depending on each patient.
The four cardinal symptoms of Parkinson's disease
Shaking (tremor) of the hands and legs
Muscle stiffness (muscle rigidity)
The muscles become stiff and the body no longer moves smoothly. When movement becomes jerky, it is called cogwheel rigidity, and when stiffness continues, it is called lead-pipe rigidity.
Slow movement (akinesia and hypokinesia)
Quick movements can no longer be performed. Movements become small and the arms hardly swing while walking. Movement becomes even slower when attempting multiple movements simultaneously.
Loss of balance (postural instability)
A loss of balance occurs easily when pushed gently while standing. Balance and posture are difficult to regain and falls often result. These symptoms appear when the disease has progressed (Stage III on the Hoehn and Yahr severity staging scale). At this stage, medical care becomes subsidized by the Japanese government.)
Other symptoms of Parkinson's disease
A variety of symptoms besides the four cardinal symptoms may appear. The symptoms shown in the table below will not necessarily be present. These symptoms also appear in other diseases, so please consult your doctor.
Abnormalities of physical function
- Gait disturbances
- Abnormal posture
- Lack of facial expression
- Impaired swallowing
- Changes in handwriting
- Blood pressure decreases upon standing
- Urinary complications
Psychiatric and cognitive abnormalities
- Hallucinations and delusions
- Pain and numbness
- Reduction in the sense of smell
- Nocturnal awakening